X-rays reveal in situ crystal growth of lead-free perovskite solar panel materials

Lead-based perovskites efficiently turn light into electricity but they also present some major drawbacks: the most efficient materials are not very stable, while lead is a toxic element. Scientists are studying alternatives to lead-based perovskites. It is very important to investigate in situ how lead-free perovskite crystals form and how the crystal structure affects the functioning of the solar cells.

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