Where does Parkinson's disease start? In the brain or gut? Or both?

Does Parkinson's disease (PD) start in the brain or the gut? In a new contribution, scientists hypothesize that PD can be divided into two subtypes: gut-first, originating in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of the gut and spreading to the brain; and brain-first, originating in the brain, or entering the brain via the olfactory system, and spreading to the brainstem and peripheral nervous system.

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